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Gluco-Sugar-Balance TM

Gluco-Sugar-Balance is a 100% vegan Food intended to help support a healthy balance of glucose in the body. It contains minerals, such as chromium GTF and vanadium, as well as herbs to nutritionally support the body's blood sugar systems.

Chromium GTF

"The biologically active form of chromium, sometimes called glucose tolerance factor or GTF, has been proposed to be a complex of chromium, nicotinic acid, and possibly the amino acids glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid. Many attempts have been made to isolate or synthesize the glucose tolerance factor; none have been successful" [1]. Food Gluco-Sugar"Balance, however, naturally contains this glucose tolerance factor chromium. Chromium is not naturally found in the body in the commonly supplemented forms such as chromium picolinate or chromium chelate. Only 1 % or less of inorganic chromium is absorbed vs. 10-25% of chromium GTF [2]. Research suggests that there is much less likelihood of toxicity from chromium in foods than from chromium picolinate, chromium chelate or chromium VI [3].

Chromium has been reported to reduce sugar cravings [4] and is sometimes advised to help with weight loss. There is an exceedingly small amount of chromium in white sugar, but that small amount can cause cravings if the body is otherwise deficient in chromium. However, since some chromium is needed by the body to fully digest white sugar, this sometimes leads to a cycle of repeated sugar cravings. Supplemental chromium can help break this sugar craving cycle.

Chromium is found in Food with accompanying Food factors which include protein chaperones [5,6]. which aid in absorption of chromium (chromium mineral salts are chemical compounds which are rocks or synthetically produced). Chromium rocks are poorly absorbed by humans (some are less than I % absorbed [2]). Plants convert soil constituents including chromium into Food [7]. Humans are supposed to consume Food, not soil [7]. Yet most chromium-containing supplements do not contain chromium as found in Foods; instead they contain various acid-processed rocks or other mineral salts. Consuming mineral salts poses at least two problems. The first is that the body has to attempt to break down the rock into its elemental forms, which it is not really designed to do (plants are supposed to do that [7], which is why they are considered to be lower down on the food chain than humans). The second is that the body has to discard the non-chromium portion somehow as it may not be of any use to the body (if undesirable elements accumulate, they can contribute to toxic accumulations and/or reactions in the body, including free radicals). Because it is a Food and not ground up rock, 100% Food Gluco-Sugar-Balance's chromium GTF is easier on the digestive system than other chromium supplements and can often be better tolerated by sensitive individuals.

What Kind of Chromium is in Your Chromium Supplements?

Chromium Form Actually Is / Often Used As
Chromium chloride A preparation ofhexahydrates; used as a corrosion inhibitor & to waterproof [8].
Chromium picolinate Chromium III with picolinic acid; picolinic acid is used in herbicides [9].
Food Gluco-Sugar-Balance Enzymatically processed plants; only used as a food.

Please also understand that chromium picolinate is a human-made substance, apparently created by Gary Evans [8,1O]--it is not a natural food. Picolinic acid is used in herbicides [9]; furthermore "picolinic acid is an excretory or waste product. It is not metabolized by, or useful to the body" [11). Scientists report, "some research groups recently suggested that chromium (III) picolinate produces significantly more oxidative stress and potential DNA damage than other chromium supplements" [3].

Chromium, Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, and Diabetes

"Chromium is generally accepted as an essential nutrient that potentiates insulin action, and thus influences carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism" [I). One small study found that chromium GTF reduced blood glucose levels by 16.8% versus 6.0% for inorganic chromium [12], thus it was 2.80 times more effective. Another study found that chromium GTF benefited certain diabetics by improving blood glucose control, lowering serum lipids, and decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease [13].

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also known as nutritional or baker's yeast and it holds several unique advantages for diabetics. Perhaps the first is that it is the most natural medium in which to grow chromium GTF. GTF is the body's form of chromium (Cr) and is the form that is best for regulating blood sugar. Specifically it has been found that "dietary high Cr yeast supplementation improved glucose tolerance, probably through a decrease in hepatic extraction of insulin" [12). Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromium GTF is up to 25 times more bioavailable than chromium mineral salts [2]. In 1999, the Nobel prize was awarded for discovering that protein chaperones are necessary for mineral transport into cellular receptors; Saccharomyces cerevisiae naturally contains protein chaperones and other Food factors which aid in mineral absorption [5,6] (these are lacking in chromium salts).

Additionally, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has pro insulin-like substances, "the specificity of the yeast processing enzymes is so similar to the proinsulin converting enzymes in the human pancreatic beta-cell that it allows the processing of the mini"proinsulin to insulin" [13]. Saccharomyces cerevisiae also contains a variety of insulin precursors that can be helpful for diabetics [14).

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the primary yeast used in baking and brewing) is beneficial to humans and can help combat various infections [15], as well as eczema according to the German E monograph. In the text, Medical Mycology John Rippon (Ph.D., Mycology, University of Chicago) wrote, "There are over 500 known species of yeast, all distinctly different. And although the so-called 'bad yeasts' do exist, the controversy in the natural foods industry regarding yeast related to health problems which is causing many health-conscious people to eliminate all yeast products from their diet is ridiculous." It should also be noted, that W. Crook, M.D., who was perhaps the nation's best known expert on Candida albicans, wrote "yeasty foods don't encourage candida growth ... Eating a yeast-containing food does not make candida organisms multiply" [16].

Supporting Food Ingredients

Gluco-Sugar-Balance also contains cinnamon, fenugreek, French lilac, gymnema, n-aceytl-l-cysteine and the mineral vanadium. Combining blood sugar supporting herbs (such as fenugreek and gymnema) with lower dosages of a medicine such as glimepiride (Amayrl) has been shown to be safer and more effective than using high dosages of the medicine by itself [17].

One report concluded that chromium GTF has been found to reduce glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in a large meta-analysis; gymnema sylvestre reduced HbAlc levels; cinnamon improved FBG; fenugreek reduced FBG in 1 of 3 small trials; and vanadium reduced FBG in small, uncontrolled trials [18].

Cinnamon Bark Cinnamon cassia has been found to improve fasting blood glucose (FBG) [18]. Another cinnamon study noticed FBG improvement with "significant decrease in plasma C-peptide, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen levels while serum high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels were significantly increased" [19] (HDL is known as "good cholesterol"). "Cinnamon extract regulates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression ... and this regulation could contribute to the potential health benefits of CE" (cinnamon extracts) [20).


Fenugreek Seed Trigonella foenum-graecum has been used as part of a program for blood sugar management. The PDR states, "Fenugreek reduces blood sugar" [15]. A human study "showed that FBS, TG and VLDL-C decreased significantly (25 %, 30 % and 30.6 % respectively) after taking fenugreek seed soaked in hot water" [21]. An animal study concluded that "fenugreek oil significantly improved blood glucose levels, glucose intolerance, and insulin sensitivity compared to the diabetic group ... diabetic rats showed low activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione content in kidney, which were restored to near normal levels by treatment with fenugreek oil.  The increased levels of lipid peroxidation, creatinine, albumin, and urea in diabetic rats decreased significantly in diabetic rats treated with fenugreek oil. Diabetic rats treated with fenugreek oil restored almost a normal architecture of pancreas and kidney. In conclusion, this study reveals the efficacy of fenugreek oil in the amelioration of diabetes, hematological status, and renal toxicity which may be attributed to its immunomodulatory activity and insulin stimulation action along with its antioxidant potential" [22]. A recent study "confirms the anti-hyperglycaemic and anti-dyslipidemic properties of 4-hydroxyisoleucine, an unusual amino acid isolated from Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, for the first time in a well-characterised model of type II diabetes ... significantly (p < 0.05) declined their elevated blood glucose, plasma insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and raised their declined plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level. These results indicate that 4-hydroxyisoleucine exhibits significant potential as an anti-diabetic agent by suppressing progression of type II diabetic states that is suggested by enhancement of insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake in peripheral tissue." [23]. "Diosgenin present in fenugreek improves glucose metabolism by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissues. " Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) can ameliorate hyperglycemia and diabetes" [24].

Goat's Rue/French Lilac Galega officinalis was the basis for the anti-diabetic medication Metformin (but Metformin is a chemical isolate) [25]. "Guanidine is an active ingredient extracted from Galega officinalis ... we observed that guanidine decreased plasma glucose in STZ rats" [26]. "Galega officinalis (galega, Goat's Rue, French Lilac) is well known for its hypoglycaemic action and has been used as part of a plant mixture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus ... During phannacological investigations ... a weight reducing effect of galega was discovered ... together with its established hypoglycaemic effects, galega has a novel weight reducing action that, in normal mice, is largely independent of a reduction in food intake. The mechanism of the weight reducing action of galega is unclear but involves loss of body fat" [27].

Gymnema Leaf and Callus "Gymnema sylvestre is a plant that has found use in the traditional medicine of a number of societies for the management of blood sugar disorders" [28]. "The phyto-constituents of Gymnema sylvestre are used in the treatment of diabetes and obesity" [29]. Various animal studies have found that it has protective effects for the pancreas of diabetics. It contains substances that researchers have concluded "showed anti-diabetic activities through regenerating beta"cells" [30].

N-Aceytl-L-Cysteine (NAC) (plant source) is a more stable form of the amino acid I-cysteine because it has an acetyl group (CH3CO) attached. It seems to help with high glucose (HG) levels. One study stated "Cotreatment with N-acetylcysteine reduced the effect of HG on aromatase gene expression, suggesting that hyperglycemia may perturb biochemical networks because of the elevation of oxidative stress" [31]. Another study concluded, "Our results clearly demonstrate protective effect of NAC is mediated through attenuation of oxidative stress and apoptosis, and suggest therapeutic potential of NAC in attenuation of diabetic neuropathy" [32]. Another diabetic study concluded that the "antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, suppressed glucose-induced osteopontin expression by decreasing ROS concentration" [33]. "Epidemiological studies have suggested that the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are enhanced in patients with diabetes mellitus and during the aging process ... Our data showed that APP {amyloid precursor protein} was up-regulated by AGEs in vitro and in vivo, and pretreatment of cells with an ROS inhibitor (N-acetyl-L-cysteine) blocked the effects of AGEs" [34].

Vanadium is a mineral believed to support healthy blood levels. Food Research supplies a vegan Food form of vanadium, not a rock or mineral salt form. Vanadium "is used in pharmacological quantities to potentiate the effect of insulin" [35]. Studies suggest that vanadium improves fasting blood glucose levels [18]. Vanadium in a ferment "can effectively lower blood glucose levels of diabetic rats" [36]. Vanadium may help with carbohydrate metabolism and seems to have "insulin"like effects" [37]. "Vanadate forms compounds with other biological substances" [38]. "Vanadium has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of (NaK)-ATPase, phosphoryl transferase enzymes, adenylate cyclase, and protein kinases; as an enzyme cofactor in the form of vandyl and in hormone, glucose, lipid, and tooth metabolism" [38]. Vanadium in foods is found in an organic form. Vanadium in Food is safer than non-food forms and also appears to be about 50% more effective [39].


Hypophosphatemia (low phosphorus levels) is clinically associated with diabetes mellitus [40]; "Excessive amounts of phosphorus can also be lost in the urine of uncontrolled diabetics who have polyuria and acidosis" even if plasma phosphorus appears to be normal [40). Most of the Foods in Gluco-Sugar-Balance naturally contain phosphorus.

While Gluco-Sugar-Balance can be used on its own, many prefer to take it with lOO% Food vegan Vitamin-Mineral for a more complete approach to gluco-sugar balance issues.





[I] Nielson F. Chromium. In Modem Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil.,1994:264-268

[2] Ensminger AH, Ensminger ME, Konlade JE, Robson JRK. Food & Nutrition Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. CRC Press, New York, 1993 [3] Stoecker B.J. Chromium. In Modem Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Phil., 2005: 332-337 [4] Thiel RJ. Serious Nutrition for Health Care Professionals, 2nd ed. Center for Natural Health Research, Arroyo Grande (CA), 1986 [5] Rouhi AM. Escorting metal ions: protein chaperone protects, guides, copper ions in transit. Chern Eng News, 1999; II :34-35

[6] Himelblau E, et al. Identification of a functional homolog of the yeast copper homeostasis gene ATXI from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 1998; 117(4): 1227-1234 [7] CronquistA. Plantae. In Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, Vol. 1. McGraw-Hill,1982:57

[8] Budavari S, et al. The Merck Index, 12th ed. Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station (NJ), 1996

[9] DiTomaso JM. Yellow starthistle: chemical control. Proceedings of the CalEPPC Symposium, 1996, as updated 5/2/02 [10] Chromium picohnate, rev. 6/96B.BLI website, July 16,2002

[11] Implications of the 'other half' ofa mineral compound. Albion Research Notes 2000;9(3):1-S

[12] Guan X, Matte JJ, Ku PK, Snow JL, Burton JL, Trottier NL. High chromium yeast supplementation improves glucose tolerance in pigs by decreasing hepatic extraction of insulin. Nutr 2000;130(5):1274-1279

[13] Thim L, Hansen MT, SorensenAR. Secretion of human insulin by a transformed yeast cell. FEBS Letters 1987,212(2):307-312 [14] Kjeldsen T. Yeast secretory expression of insulin precursors. Appl Microbiol BiotechmoI2000;54(3):277-286

[15] Gruenwald et al editors. PDR for Herbal Medicines,4th ed. Thompson Healthcare .. Montvale (NJ) 2007

[16] Crook W. The Yeast Connection: A Medical Breakthrough. Professional Books, Jackson, TN; 1986

{17] Yadav M, Lavania A, Tomar R, Prasad GB, Jain S, Yadav H. Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 20 I 0 Apr; 160(8):2388-400

[18] Nahas R, Moher M. Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Can Fam Physician. 2009 Jun;55(6):591-6

[19] Ping H, Zhang G, Ren G. Antidiabetic effects of cinnamon oil in diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Food Chern Toxicol. 2010 Jun 1. [Epub ahead of print]

[20] Cao H, Graves DJ, Anderson RA. Cinnamon extract regnlates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression in mouse adipocytes. Phytomedicine. 2010 May 27. [Epub ahead of print]

[21] Kassaian N, Azadbakht L, Forghani B, Amini M. Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2009 Jan;79(1):34-9 [22] Hamden K, Masmoudi H, Carreau S, Elfeki A. Immunomodulatory, beta-cell, and neuroprotective actions of fenugreek oil from alloxan-induced diabetes. Immunopllarmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010 Jan 25. [Epub ahead of print

[23] Singh AB, Tamarkar AK, Narender T, Srivastava AK. Antihyperglycaemic effect of an unusual amino acid (4-hydroxyisoleucine) in C57BLlKsJ-db/db mice. Nat Prod Res. 2010 Feb;24(3):258-65

[24] Demura T, Hirai S, Mizoguchi N, Goto T, Lee JY, Taketani K, Nakano Y, Shono J, Hoshino S, Tsuge N, Narukami T, Takahashi N, Kawada T. Diosgenin present in fenugreek improves glucose metabolism by promoting adipocyte differentiation and inhibiting inflammation in adipose tissnes. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2010 Jun 10. [Epub ahead of print]

[25] Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL. Herbal remedies in the management of diabetes. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Jun;15(3): 149-60

[26] Chang CH, Tsao CW, Huang SY, Cheng JT. Activation of imidazoline I(2B) receptors by guanidine to increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of rats. Neurosci Lett. 2009 Dec 25;467(2):147-9

[27] Palit P, Furman BL, Gray AI. Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice. J Phann Pharmacol. 1999 Nav;51 (II): 1313-9 [28] Burnham TH, et aI, editors. The Review of Natural Products. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis. 2001: 283:284

[29] Kanetkar PV, Singhal RS, Laddha KS, Kamat MY. Extraction and quantification of gymnemic acids through gymnemagenin from callus cultures of Gymnema sylvestre. Phytochem Anal. 2006 Nov;17(6):409-13

[30] Ahmed AB, Rao AS, Rao MY. In vitro callus and in vivo leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre stimulate beta-cells regeneration and anti-diabetic activity in Wi star rats. Phytomedicine. 2010 May 26. [Epub ahead of print]

[31] Inadera H, Tachibana S, Takasaki I, Tatematsu M, Shimomura A. Hyperglycemia perturbs biochemical networks in human trophoblast BeWo cells. Endocr J. 2010 May 13. [Epub ahead of print]

[32] Kamboj SS, Vasishta RK, Sandhir R. N-acetylcysteine inhibits hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in diabetic neuropathy. J Neurochem. 2010 Jan;112(1):77"91

[33] Hsieh MS, Zhong WB, Yu SC, Lin JY, Chi WM, Lee HM. Dipyridamole suppresses high glucose-indnced osteopontin secretion and mRNA expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Circ J. 2010 May 25;74(6): 1242-50

[34] Ko SY, Lin YP, Lin YS, Chang SS. Advanced glycation end products enhance amyloid precursor protein expression by inducing reactive oxygen species. Free Radic Bioi Med. 2010 Aug 1;49(3):474-80

[35] Eckhert CD. In Modem Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th ed .. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 2006: 348

[36] Hu R, He C, Liu J, Wu Y, Li J, Feng Z, Huang J, Xi XG, Wu Z. Effects of insulin-mimetic vanadyl-poly(gamma-glutamic acid) complex on diabetic rat model. J Pharm Sci. 2010 Jul;99(7):3041-7

[37] Kimura K. [Role of essential trace elements in the disturbance of carbohydrate metabolism] Nippon Rinsho. 1996 Jan;54(l ):79-84


[38] Nielsen F. Ultratrace Minerals. In Modem Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil., 1994:269-286


[39] Badmaev V, Prakash S, Majeed M. Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes. J Altern Complement Med. 1999;5(3):273-291


[40] Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M. Modem Nutrition in Health and Disease, 8th ed. Lea & Febiger, Phil; 1994

Some of these studies (or citations) may not conform to peer review standards, therefore, the results are not conclusive. Professionals can, and often do, come to different conclusions when reviewing scientific data. None of these statements have been reviewed by the USFDA, Health Canada, or other international governmental regulatory agency. All products from Food Research International are nutritional and are not intended for the treatment or prevention of any medical condition.


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Important Note:
The information presented herein by The Natural Path Botanicals is intended for educational purposes only. These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, cure, treat or prevent disease. Individual results may vary, and before using any supplements, it is always advisable to consult with your own health care provider.

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